Shoegaze is a subgenre of indie and alternative rock characterized by its ethereal mixture of obscured vocals, guitar distortion and effects, feedback, and overwhelming volume. It emerged in Ireland and the United Kingdom in the late 1980s among neo-psychedelic groups who stood motionless during live performances in a detached, non-confrontational state with their heads down, due to heavy use of effects pedals meant the performers were often looking down at their pedals during concerts.
My Bloody Valentine's album Loveless (1991) is often seen as the genre's defining release, with other prominent shoegaze groups including Slowdive, Ride, Lush, the Boo Radleys, and Chapterhouse. A loose label given to the shoegaze bands and other affiliated bands in London in the early 1990s was "the Scene That Celebrates Itself". Most shoegaze artists drew from the template set by My Bloody Valentine on their late 1980s recordings, as well as bands such as Dinosaur Jr., the Jesus & Mary Chain, and the Cocteau Twins.