Hard Bop

Hard bop, as the name implies, grew out of be-bop. As it included more rhythm and blues and gospel elements, it has sometimes been describes as having a more "funky" feel. Jazz purists have criticised this relative of "soul jazz" for simplifying the technical complexity of be-bop, but audiences responded very positively and still do!

Miles Davis was an early explorer of this style, as were fellow trumpeters Lee Morgan and Freddie Hubbard. Sax players associated with hard bop include Cannonball Adderley and Lou Donaldson while pianists numbered Herbie Hancock and Wynton Kelly amongst their ranks. Other hard bop musicians worth investigating are some fabulous organ players (Shirley Scott, Jimmy Smith, Larry Young), Grant Green (guitar), and Bobby Hutcherson (vibes).